Developing Accessible Websites
In order to assure that websites and web applications are accessible to and usable by everyone, designers and developers must follow web accessibility guidelines. Each of the following topics address issues that are especially common on JCC websites. See also our annotated list of web accessibility Tools and Resources.
Features of Accessible Websites
- Good use of HTML headings
- Accessible with keyboard
- Accessible images
- Accessible menus
- Accessible forms
- Accessible tables
- Effective use of color
- Meaningful link text
- ARIA landmark roles
- ARIA for web applications
Additional information is available on the AccessComputing website 30 Web Accessibility Tips.
Checking a Website for Accessibility
You can go a long way toward assuring your website is accessible by following these simple steps:
- Validate your HTML. If HTML is used incorrectly, assistive technology can have problems interpreting
the page content, which can result in access problems for users.Use an HTML validator
to check your code.
- Test with a keyboard. Set your mouse aside and use the tab key to navigate through your web pages. You
should be able to access all interactive features (e.g., menus, links, form fields,
buttons, controls) and operate them by pressing Enter, space, arrow keys or other
intuitive keystrokes. If you are unable to access some of your site’s features, your
site is likely to have accessibility problems.
- Use an accessibility checker. There are several free online tools that will check your web pages for accessibility.
See our Tools and Resources page for an annotated list.
Also, the College has an enterprise license for SiteImprove, a powerful tool that scans your site at regular intervals for broken links, spelling errors, and accessibility problems.
- Test with users. JCC’s Laboratory for Usability Testing and Evaluation (LUTE) provides a controlled
setting for conducting usability tests, and is available by reservation to JCC community.
You could also test your site less formally by simply recruiting and observe users
as they interact with your site. To test for accessibility, recruit users who have
a variety of skill levels and characteristics, such as those listed below under the
heading What Is Accessibility?
- Ask for help. The JCC community is actively working toward the goal of full accessibility for all visitors to its websites. Since we’re all working together toward this goal, there are many in the community who are happy to help. See Getting Help with Accessibility for more information.
What is Web Accessibility?
People who use the web have a growing variety of characteristics. As web developers, we can not assume that all our users are accessing our content using the same web browser or operating system as we are, nor can we assume they’re using a traditional monitor for output, or keyboard and mouse for input. Consider these user characteristics:
- Unable to see. Individuals who are blind use either audible output (products called screen readers
that read web content using synthesized speech) or tactile output (a refreshable Braille
- Has dyslexia. Individuals with learning disabilities such as dyslexia may also use audible output,
along with software that highlights words or phrases as they’re read aloud using synthesized
- Has low vision. Individuals with low vision may use screen magnification software that allows them
to zoom into all or a portion of the visual screen. Many others with less-than-perfect
eyesight may enlarge the font on websites using standard browser functions, such as
Ctrl + in Windows browsers or Command + in Mac browsers.
- Has a physical disability. Individuals with physical disabilities that effect their their use of hands may be
unable to use a mouse, and instead may rely exclusively on keyboard or use assistive
technologies such as speech recognition, head pointers, mouth sticks, or eye-gaze
- Unable to hear. Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing are unable to access audio content,
so video needs to be captioned and audio needs be transcribed.
- Using a mobile device. Individuals who are accessing the web using a compact mobile device such as a phone
face accessibility barriers, just like individuals with disabilities do. They’re using
a small screen and may need to zoom in or increase the font size, and they are likely
to be using a touch interface rather than a mouse. Also, Apple’s iPhone and iPad do
not support Adobe Flash.
- Limited bandwidth. Individuals may be on slow Internet connections if they’re located in a rural area
or lack the financial resources to access high-speed Internet. These users benefit
from pages that load quickly (use graphics sparingly) and transcripts for video.
- Limited time. Very busy individuals may have too little time to watch an entire video or audio recording, but can quickly access its content if a transcript is available. An accessible website works for all of these users, and countless others not mentioned.
The W3C summarizes web accessibility nicely in their Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. WCAG 2.0 is organized into the following four key concepts:
- Web content must be perceivable
- Web content must be operable
- Web content must be understandable
- Web content must be robust
There are many possible approaches to attaining accessibility as defined by these four concepts. The pages of this website were designed to help.
The following video, produced by JCC-Web Accessible Technology Services, features university web designers and developers, including several from JCC, discussing the importance of creating websites that are accessible to all users.